METHODS: We performed a prespecified secondary analysis of data obtained in 2233 adult patients undergoing surgery under general anesthesia. Postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade was defined as a train-of-four ratio <0.9 in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). Our confounder model adjusted for a variety of patient, surgical, and anesthesia-related factors. We fitted truncated negative binomial regression models for hospital cost and hospital length of stay analyses and a logistic regression model for our intensive care unit admission analysis.
RESULTS: Overall, 457 (20.5%) patients in our cohort had residual neuromuscular blockade on admission to the PACU. Postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade was not independently associated with increased hospital costs (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 1.04, CI, 0.98–1.11; P = .22). There were significantly higher odds of intensive care unit admission in those with postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade compared to those without (adjusted odds ratio, 3.03, CI, 1.33–6.87; P < .01). Further, we found a trend toward increased hospital length of stay in patients with postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 1.09; P = .06). Sensitivity analysis using the same model in the day of surgery admissions and ambulatory surgery confirmed our findings.
CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade at PACU admission was not significantly associated with increased hospital costs, but was associated with higher rates of intensive care unit admission. These findings support the view that clinicians should continue to work to reduce the rate of postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade.