Airway stenting is a procedure in which a stent is inserted into a stenotic site of the airway. The safest method of ventilation for airway stenting is controversial. A prospective randomized interventional study was conducted on airway stenting. We conducted this study to investigate whether controlled ventilation with muscle relaxants (MR) during airway stenting reduces the incidence of desaturation events (percutaneous oxygen saturation [SpO2] <95%) in comparison with spontaneous respiration (SP).
Sixty-four patients were enrolled at our hospital between April 2016 and August 2018, and were randomly assigned to the controlled ventilation with MR group or SP group. For anesthesia, total intravenous anesthesia with propofol target-controlled infusion and remifentanil was performed. In the SP group, SP was maintained. In the MR group, a rigid bronchoscope was inserted after the administration of MR to perform controlled ventilation. The incidence of desaturation events was analyzed by logistic regression adjusted by the preoperative respiratory state and stenotic site of the airway.
The incidence of desaturation events in the SP and MR groups was 75.0% (24/32) and 9.7% (3/31), respectively, with an odds ratio of 0.04 (95% confidence interval, 0.01–0.16, reference = SP group; P < .001). In the SP group, the mean intraoperative pH was lower than that in the MR group (7.2 ± 0.1 vs 7.4 ± 0.1, respectively; P < .001). In this group, the mean partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) was higher (70.2 ± 17.0 mm Hg vs 40.5 ± 8.0 mm Hg, respectively; P < .001) and the mean partial pressure of oxygen in the arterial blood/fraction of the inspiratory oxygen ratio was lower (263.1 ± 64.2 mm Hg vs 396.4 ± 69.4 mm Hg, respectively; P < .001).
Controlled ventilation with MR during airway stenting reduced the incidence of desaturation events, maintaining a favorable respiratory status.