Anesthesia & Analgesia: March 2016
AUTHORS: Mirzakhani, Hooman MD, PhD, MMSc et
BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular blockade is required to control excessive muscle contractions during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). In a crossover, assessor-blinded, prospective randomized study, we studied the minimum effective dose (MED) of succinylcholine and rocuronium for ECT. The MED was the lowest dose to provide a predefined qualitative measure of acceptable control of muscle strength during induced convulsions.
METHODS: Succinylcholine (0.8 mg kg-1) or rocuronium (0.4 mg kg-1) was randomly administered in 227 ECT sessions to 45 patients. The dose was incrementally increased or decreased by 10% based on 2 psychiatrists’ (blinded to treatment) assessment of “acceptable” or “not acceptable” control of evoked muscle contractions (sufficient versus insufficient or excessive paralysis). The neuromuscular transmission was monitored quantitatively until full recovery.
RESULTS: In our study, the MEDs of succinylcholine and rocuronium to produce acceptable ECT conditions in 50% of patients (MED50ECT) were 0.85 mg kg-1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77-0.94) and 0.41 mg kg-1 (95% CI, 0.36-0.46) and in 90% of patients (MED90ECT) were 1.06 mg kg-1 (95% CI, 1.0-1.27) and 0.57 mg kg-1 (95% CI, 0.5-0.6), respectively. Nadir twitch height for acceptable muscle activity was 0% (0-4) and 4% (0-30; P < 0.001), respectively, and the time to recovery of the neuromuscular transmission was 9.7 +/- 3.5 and 19.5 +/- 5.7 minutes, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: A twitch suppression of >90% is needed for control of motor contractions during ECT. The initial ECT dose of succinylcholine should be selected based on each patient’s preprocedural condition, ranging between 0.77 and 1.27 mg kg-1 to produce acceptable muscle blockade in 50% to 90% of patients. Rocuronium-neostigmine combination is a safe alternative if appropriately dosed (0.36-0.6 mg kg-1) and monitored.