Conceptually, precision medicine is a deep dive to discover disease origin at the molecular or genetic level, thus providing insights that allow clinicians to design corresponding individualized patient therapies. We know that a disease state is created by not only certain molecular derangements but also a biologic milieu promoting the expression of such derangements. These factors together lead to manifested symptoms. At the level of molecular definition, every average, “similar” individual stands to be “dissimilar.” Hence, there is the need for customized therapy, moving away from therapy based on aggregate statistics. The perioperative state is a mix of several, simultaneously active molecular mechanisms, surgical insult, drugs, severe inflammatory response, and the body’s continuous adaptation to maintain a state of homeostasis. Postoperative outcomes are a net result of several of those rapid genetic and molecular transformations that do or do not ensue. With the advent and advances of artificial intelligence, the translation from identifying these intricate mechanisms to implementing them in clinical practice has made a huge leap. Precision medicine is gaining ground with the help of personalized health recorders and personal devices that identify disease mechanics, patient-reported outcomes, adverse drug reactions, and drug-drug interaction at the individual level in a closed-loop feedback system. This phenomenon is especially true given increasing surgeries in older adults, many of whom are on multiple medications and varyingly frail. In this era of precision medicine, to provide a comprehensive remedy, the perioperative surgical home must expand, incorporating not only clinicians but also basic science experts and data scientists.
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