The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of presurgical interventions for promoting smoking cessation in terms of achieving smoking abstinence and reducing surgical complication rates. A systematic review of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) published from March 2009 to April 2021 was performed following the PRISMA guidelines. References were found in MEDLINE (via PubMed), Web of Science (WOS), and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). RCTs comparing the efficacy of a smoking cessation program directed at an intervention group (IG) versus the usual intervention or another directed at a control group (CG) were included. No language restrictions were applied in the search. All approaches to smoking cessation were admitted (face-to-face, telephone, group, individual, multicomponent, etc.), as were all methods for assessing abstinence, follow-up times, surgical specialties, definitions of smokers, and all types of surgical complications. Four hundred forty-four references were pulled out, and 79 duplicates were discarded. We excluded 346 records that were after application of the inclusion/exclusion criteria. In addition to the remaining 19 articles, 1 article obtained from citation searches was also assessed. We finally included 11 original articles in this systematic review, corresponding to 9 studies, because 2 of the RCTs had 2 different articles referring to different aspects of the same study. The results showed long-term postoperative (6 to 12 months) abstinence rates between 25.0% and 36.4% in RCTs with intensive multicomponent interventions, versus rates about 13.0% in brief interventions. Two multicomponent interventions obtained significant improvements regarding the reduction of short-term postoperative surgical complications. In conclusion, presurgical multicomponent smoking cessation interventions are more effective than brief interventions in terms of achieving abstinence and reducing surgical complications. The follow-up time and the intensity of the interventions were predictors of dropout.