A Randomized Controlled Trial
Authors: Maaike G. E. Fenten et al
BMC Anesthesiol. 2015;15(130)
Background: In what way volume, concentration and dose affect block duration is controversial. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of dose, volume and concentration of mepivacaine on the duration of sensory and motor blockade in ultrasound-guided single shot axillary brachial plexus blockade.
Methods: In this parallel group randomized trial conducted in the Sint Maartenskliniek Nijmegen, 45 adult patients undergoing minor orthopaedic forearm, wrist or hand surgery were randomized to 3 groups. Group A: 20 mL mepivacaine 1.5 %, Group B: 30 mL mepivacaine 1 % and Group C: 30 mL mepivacaine 1.5 %. Randomization was computer-generated, with allocation concealment by opaque sequentially numbered sealed envelopes. Patients and observers were blinded to group allocation. Primary outcome measure: duration of sensory block.
Results: Forty-five patients were randomized, four patients were excluded and replaced, and 15 patients in each group were included in the analysis. Mean (95 % CI) sensory and motor block duration was 256 (230–282) and 254 (226–282) minutes in Group A, 226 (209–243) and 220 (200–240) minutes in Group B and 270 (249–291) and 264 (244–284) minutes in Group C. Duration of sensory and motor block duration differed significantly between groups (p = 0.012 and p = 0.016 respectively). Post-hoc analysis showed a significantly reduced sensory and motor block duration in Group B when compared to Group C of 44 min. No local anesthetic systemic toxicity was reported.
Conclusions: When using mepivacaine for axillary brachial plexus block, a higher dose and concentration was associated with a longer duration of sensory and motor blockade, but not a higher volume.