A high fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio2) is administered during one-lung ventilation (OLV). However, a high Fio2 is not physiologic and may lead to various complications. We hypothesized that continuous titration of Fio2 using the oxygen reserve index (ORI) reduces oxygen exposure compared to conventional management during OLV.
In this randomized, double-blinded trial, patients undergoing thoracic surgery were assigned to an ORI (n = 64) or a control group (n = 60). In the ORI group, ORI was continuously displayed using multiwavelength pulse co-oximetry (Masimo) between 0 and 1 (0, no reserve; 1, maximum reserve), and Fio2 was titrated for a target ORI of 0.21 at 5-minute intervals during OLV. In the control group, Fio2 was adjusted using arterial blood gas analysis measured at 15 minutes after OLV initiation. The primary end point was the time-weighted average Fio2 during OLV.
Overall, time-weighted average Fio2 did not differ between the groups (control versus ORI: median [interquartile range], 0.87 [0.73–1.00] vs 0.82 [0.68–0.93]; P = .09). However, in a subgroup analysis, the ORI group reduced time-weighted average Fio2 after pulmonary vascular ligation compared to the control group (control versus ORI: median [interquartile range], 0.75 [0.70–1.00] vs 0.72 [0.59–0.89]; P = .0261). The incidence of intraoperative hypoxia (arterial oxygen saturation [Spo2] <94%; control versus ORI: 32% [19/60; 95% confidence interval (CI), 20–45] vs 19% [12/64; 95% CI, 10–31]; P = .09), and postoperative complications within the first 7 days did not differ between the groups.
ORI-guided continuous Fio2 titration does not reduce overall oxygen exposure during OLV.