We developed and implemented a perioperative guideline for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), comprising a preoperative screening tool (BOSTN) and clinical management pathways. OSA was suspected with 2 or more of the following: body mass index ≥30 kg/m2, observed apnea, loud snoring, daytime tiredness, and neck circumference ≥16.5 inches in women or ≥ 17.5 inches in men. The primary objective of this study was to assess the association between high BOSTN scores and the requirement of invasive mechanical ventilation after surgery.
In this hospital registry study, 169,662 noncardiac surgical cases performed at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC), Boston, MA, between May 2008 and September 2017 were analyzed. We assessed the association between a high BOSTN Score (score ≥2) and the primary outcome of requirement of invasive mechanical ventilation within 7 days after surgery using multivariable logistic regression adjusted for patient-specific factors and case-specific surgical and anesthesiological confounders. Patients with a BOSTN Score ≥2 were assumed to have a high likelihood of suffering from OSA. Key secondary outcome was postoperative desaturation, defined as a peripheral oxygen saturation measurement <90% within 10 minutes of extubation.
Invasive mechanical ventilation within 7 days of surgery was necessary in 3170 (2.3%) low-risk cases (BOSTN Score <2) and 664 (2.1%) high-risk cases (BOSTN Score ≥2). A score ≥2 was associated with significantly lower odds of requiring postoperative invasive ventilation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80–0.98; P = .017), but with an increased risk of postextubation desaturation (aOR, 1.34; 99.3% CI, 1.21–1.48; P < .001). Patients with a score ≥2 were hospitalized for an average of 3.71 days after surgery, compared to 4.27 days with a score <2 (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR], 0.87; 99.3% CI, 0.84–0.91; P < .001).
Patients at high risk of OSA required postoperative mechanical ventilation less frequently, had higher odds of postoperative desaturation, and were hospitalized for shorter periods of time.
- Question: Is the preoperative screening for suspected obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) using the BOSTN Score associated with requirement of invasive mechanical ventilation and postoperative desaturation?
- Findings: We observed significantly lower odds for postoperative invasive mechanical ventilation but more oxygen desaturations after extubation, as well as shorter hospital lengths of stay and less 30-day mortality in patients identified as high risk of OSA.
- Meaning: High OSA risk is associated with an increased risk of early postextubation desaturation. Our study does not support the view that OSA increases the risk of severe respiratory complications.