DG Journal Club
Anesthesiology. 2022 Jul
BACKGROUND. An optimal opioid-sparing multimodal analgesic regimen to treat severe pain can enhance recovery after total knee arthroplasty. We hypothesized that adding 5 recently described IV and regional interventions to multimodal analgesic regimen can further reduce opioid consumption.
METHODS. In a double-blinded fashion, seventy-eight patients undergoing elective total knee arthroplasty were randomized to either (1) a control group (n=39) that received spinal anesthesia with intrathecal morphine, periarticular local anesthesia infiltration, IV dexamethasone and a single injection adductor canal block or (2) a study group (n=39) that received the same set of analgesic treatments plus 5 additional interventions – local anesthetic infiltration between the popliteal artery and capsule of the posterior knee, intraoperative IV dexmedetomidine and ketamine, and postoperatively, 1 additional IV dexamethasone bolus, and 2 additional adductor canal block injections. The primary outcome measure was 24-hour cumulative opioid consumption after surgery and secondary outcomes were other analgesic, patient recovery and functional outcomes and adverse events.
RESULTS. Opioid consumption was not different between groups at 24 hours (oral morphine equivalents, mean ± SD), study: 23.7 ± 18.0 mg vs. control: 29.3 ± 18.7 mg; mean difference [95% CI], -5.6 mg [-2.7, 13.9]; P = 0.189) and all other time points after surgery. There were no major differences in pain scores, quality of recovery, or time to reach rehabilitation milestones. Hypotensive episodes occurred more frequently in the study group (25/39 (64.1%) vs. 13/39 (33.3%), p= 0.010).
CONCLUSIONS. In the presence of periarticular local anesthesia infiltration, intrathecal morphine, single shot adductor canal block and dexamethasone, the addition of 5 analgesic interventions – local anesthetic infiltration between the popliteal artery and capsule of the posterior knee, IV dexmedetomidine, IV ketamine, an additional IV dexamethasone dose and repeated adductor canal block injections – failed to further reduce opioid consumption, pain scores or improve functional outcomes after total knee arthroplasty.