Authors: Bot AG et al.
In 2012, Medicare began to tie reimbursements to inpatient complications, unplanned readmissions, and patient satisfaction, including satisfaction with pain management.
We aimed to identify factors that correlate with (1) pain intensity during a 24-hour period after surgery; (2) less than complete satisfaction with pain control; (3) less than complete satisfaction with staff attention to pain relief while in the hospital; and we also wished (4) to compare inpatient and discharge satisfaction scores.
Ninety-seven inpatients completed measures of pain intensity (numeric rating scale), satisfaction with pain relief, self-efficacy when in pain, and symptoms of depression days after operative fracture repair. The amount of opioid used in oral morphine equivalents taken during the prior 24 hours was calculated. Through initial bivariate and then multivariate analysis, we identified factors that were associated with pain intensity, less than complete satisfaction with pain control, and less than complete satisfaction with staff attention to pain relief.
Patients who took more opioids reported greater pain intensity (r = 0.38). No factors representative of greater nociception (fracture type, number of fractures, days from injury to surgery, days from surgery to enrollment, or type of surgery) correlated with greater pain intensity. The best multivariable model for greater pain intensity included: depression or anxiety disorder (p = 0.019), smoking (0.047), and greater opioid intake (p = 0.001). Multivariable analysis for less than ideal satisfaction with pain control included the Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (PSEQ) (odds ratio [OR], 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.99) alone; for less than ideal satisfaction with staff attention to pain control, the PSEQ (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.92-0.99) and opioid medication use before admission (OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.1-12) were included.
After operative fracture treatment, patients who take more opioids report greater pain intensity and less satisfaction with pain relief. Greater self-efficacy was the best determinant of satisfaction with pain relief. Evidence-based interventions to increase self-efficacy merit additional study for the management of postoperative pain during recovery from a fracture.