Moyamoya disease, a rare chronic cerebrovascular disease with a fragile vascular network at the base of the brain, can cause ischemic or hemorrhagic strokes or seizures. Precise blood pressure control and adequate analgesia are important for patients with moyamoya disease to prevent neurological events such as ischemia and hemorrhage. This study aimed to compare the intraoperative mean arterial pressure of pregnant women with moyamoya disease according to the mode of anesthesia (general anesthesia versus spinal anesthesia) used during cesarean delivery.
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 87 cesarean deliveries in 74 patients who had been diagnosed with moyamoya disease before cesarean delivery. The primary outcome, intraoperative maximum mean arterial pressure during anesthesia, was compared according to the type of anesthesia administered (general versus spinal anesthesia). Other perioperative hemodynamic data (lowest mean arterial pressure, incidence of hypotension, vasopressor use, and antihypertensive agent use), maternal neurologic symptoms, neonatal outcomes (Apgar scores <7, ventilatory support, and intensive care unit admission), maternal and neonatal length of stay, postoperative pain scores, and rescue analgesic use were assessed as secondary outcomes.
While the lowest blood pressure during anesthesia and incidence of hypotension did not differ between the 2 groups, the maximum mean arterial pressure during anesthesia was lower in the spinal anesthesia group than that in the general anesthesia group (104.8 ± 2.5 vs 122.0 ± 4.6; P = .002). Study data did not support the claim that maternal neurologic symptoms differ according to the type of anesthesia used (5.6% vs 9.3%; P = .628); all patients recovered without any sequelae. The postoperative pain scores were lower, and fewer rescue analgesics were used in the spinal anesthesia group than in the general anesthesia group. Other maternal and neonatal outcomes were not different between the 2 groups.
Compared with general anesthesia, spinal anesthesia mitigated the maximum arterial blood pressure during cesarean delivery and improved postoperative pain in patients with moyamoya disease.