Published in Acta Anaestesiol Scand 2015 Apr;59(4):414-26
Authors: Heesen M et al
Intravenous ketamine has been used during general and regional anaesthesia for caesarean section. No systematic review and meta-analysis on the desired effects and adverse effects of ketamine administration during caesarean section have yet been performed.
After a systematic literature search a meta-analysis was conducted with the random effects model. Weighted mean difference (WMD) or risk ratio and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed.
Twelve randomised controlled double-blind trials comprising 953 patients were included: seven studies reported on spinal anaesthesia and five on general anaesthesia. Significant differences in the aforementioned outcome variables were found only in the spinal anaesthesia studies. In the spinal anaesthesia studies the time to the first analgesic request was significantly longer in ketamine-treated women, the WMD was 49.36 min (95% CI 43.31-55.41); visual analogue scale pain scores at rest 2 h after surgery were significantly lower. No differences were observed for maternal nausea, vomiting, pruritus, and psychomimetic effects. Only few data were found for neonatal outcomes.
We conclude that ketamine enhances post-operative analgesia after caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia. There is a paucity of data for several maternal adverse effects as well as for neonatal well-being. Further studies are needed for general anaesthesia.