Postoperative use of platelet function testing to rule out microvascular bleeding due to platelet dysfunction after cardiac surgery still lacks strong reference data and reliable cutoff values, yielding a clinically adequate sensitivity and specificity. The present study aims to investigate the performance of two different point-of-care viscoelastic devices and platelet aggregometry in expressing surgery-dependent platelet dysfunction and anticipating postoperative major bleeding in a cohort of high-risk patients.
Prospective cohort study of 50 adult patients who were on antiplatelet drugs discontinued for no more than 7 days (clopidogrel and prasugrel) or 5 days (ticagrelor) undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Coagulation and platelet function testing, including QUANTRA, ROTEM, and Multiplate, were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively. Chest drain blood loss was measured in the first 12 postoperative hours. Perioperative bleeding was assessed using a modified version of the Universal Definition of Perioperative Bleeding (UDPB) in cardiac surgery, modified to not consider anemia-correcting packed red cells transfusions in the absence of bleeding >600 mL/12 h. Major bleeding was identified as UDPB class II or higher.
Multiplate adenosine diphosphate (ADPtest) was significantly (P = .001) reduced after CPB, whereas TRAPtest was not. The platelet component (PC) as extrapolated by ROTEM data (EXTEM MCF–FIBTEM MCF) was unchanged after CPB, while the A10 PC (PC at 10 minutes) was significantly (P = .001) reduced. The QUANTRA platelet contribution to clot stiffness (PCS) was significantly (P = .001) reduced, as well. At the ROC analysis for the predictive ability of the post-CPB platelet function testing, the best discrimination was obtained by the QUANTRA PCS, with an area under the curve (AUC) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of 0.80 (0.66–0.91), P = .001, followed by the ROTEM A10 PC with AUC (95% CI) of 0.75 (0.51–0.99), P = .004, and PC with AUC (95% CI) of 0.74 (0.50–0.99), P = .009. The Multiplate ADPtest had an AUC (95% CI) of 0.67 (0.42–0.91), and the TRAPtest had an AUC (95% CI) of 0.62 (0.37–0.86). The cutoff values identified were 13 hPa for the QUANTRA PCS, 40 mm for the ROTEM A10, and 48.5 mm for the ROTEM PC, with negative predictive values of 84%, 81%, and 86%, respectively, and positive predictive values of 55%, 53%, and 69%, respectively.
QUANTRA PCS, ROTEM A10 PC, and Multiplate ADPtest showed a significant decrease after CPB, whereas ROTEM PC and Multiplate TRAPtest did not. Major bleeding was predicted with a moderate to good discrimination by the post-CPB viscoelastic tests (PCS, PC, and A10 PC).
Question: Are viscoelastic tests clinically useful to identify platelet-related bleeding in high-risk cardiac surgery patients?
Findings: Viscoelastic tests, namely QUANTRA PCS and ROTEM A10 PC and PC, are adequate in predicting major bleeding after cardiac surgery with a moderate degree of discrimination, and relative cutoff values could be identified.
Meaning: The identified cutoff values could be useful in ruling out postoperative bleeding due to the platelet-related factor within a wider protocol for the management of the postoperative bleeding.
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