BACKGROUND: The risk for transient tachypnea of newborns, a common cause of respiratory distress in the neonatal period, is 2- to 6-fold higher during elective cesarean delivery compared to vaginal delivery. Here, we evaluated the association between transient tachypnea of newborns and the degree and duration of predelivery maternal hypotension during spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery.
METHODS: Demographic data, details of anesthetic management, blood pressure measurements, and vasopressor requirement preceding delivery were compared between transient tachypnea newborns (n = 30) and healthy neonates (n = 151) with normal respiratory function born via elective cesarean delivery between July 2015 and February 2016. The degree and duration of hypotension were assessed using area under the curve for systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≤90 mm Hg and area under the curve for mean arterial pressure ≤65 mm Hg. After adjusting for confounders, multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between area under the curve for SBP and transient tachypnea of newborns.
RESULTS: The median area under the curve for SBP was higher in cases of transient tachypnea of newborns (0.94; interquartile range, 0–28.7 mm Hg*min) compared to healthy controls (0; interquartile range, 0–3.30 mm Hg*min; P = .001). Similarly, median area under the curve for mean arterial pressure was also higher in cases of transient tachypnea of newborns (0; interquartile range, 0–18.6 mm Hg*min) compared to controls (0; interquartile range, 0–1.1 mm Hg*min; P = .01). Mothers of transient tachypnea newborns received significantly higher amounts of phenylephrine and ephedrine compared to controls (P = .001 and 0.01, respectively). Hence, the total vasopressor dose given to mothers in the transient tachypnea of newborn group was much higher than for the control group (P = .001). In the multivariable logistic regression, area under the curve for SBP was significantly associated with transient tachypnea of newborns (odds ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01–1.04, P = .005) after adjusting for gravidity and the type of anesthetic (spinal versus combined spinal epidural).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the degree and duration of maternal SBP <90 mm Hg after neuraxial anesthesia during elective cesarean delivery are associated with transient tachypnea of newborns. Future prospective studies should further explore the effects of maternal hypotension, its prevention, and treatment for transient tachypnea of newborns.