Durable memory decline may occur in older adults after surgical (coronary artery bypass grafting [CABG]) or nonsurgical (percutaneous coronary intervention) coronary revascularization. However, it is unknown whether individual memory risk can be predicted. We reanalyzed an epidemiological cohort of older adults to predict memory decline at ≈1 year after revascularization.
Methods and Results
We studied Health and Retirement Study participants who underwent CABG or percutaneous coronary intervention at age ≥65 years between 1998 and 2015 and participated in ≥1 biennial postprocedure assessment. Using a memory score based on direct and proxy cognitive tests, we identified participants whose actual postprocedure memory score was 1–2 (“mild”) or >2 (“major”) SDs below expected postprocedure performance. We modeled probability of memory decline using logistic regression on preoperatively known factors and evaluated model discrimination and calibration. A total of 1390 participants (551 CABG, 839 percutaneous coronary intervention) underwent CABG/percutaneous coronary intervention at 75±6 years old; 40% were women. The cohort was 83% non‐Hispanic White, 8.4% non‐Hispanic Black, 6.4% Hispanic ethnicity, and 1.7% from other groups masked by the HRS (Health and Retirement Study) to preserve participant confidentiality. At a median of 1.1 (interquartile range, 0.6–1.6) years after procedure, 267 (19%) had mild memory decline and 88 (6.3%) had major memory decline. Factors predicting memory decline included older age, frailty, and off‐pump CABG; obesity was protective. The optimism‐corrected area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.73 (95% CI, 0.71–0.77). A cutoff of 50% probability of memory decline identified 14% of the cohort as high risk, and was 94% specific and 30% sensitive for late memory decline.
Preoperative factors can be used to predict late memory decline after coronary revascularization in an epidemiological cohort with high specificity.