Devices monitoring the hypnotic component of general anesthesia can help to guide anesthetic management. The main purposes of these devices are the titration of anesthesia dose. While anesthesia at low doses can result in awareness with intraoperative memory formation, excessive administration of anesthetics may be associated with an increased risk of postoperative neurocognitive disorder. We have previously shown for various indices that they are significantly influenced by the patient’s age and that the monitors have a significant time delay. Here, we evaluated the influence of patient’s age and time delay on the patient state index (PSI) of the SEDLine monitor.
To analyze the influence of the patient’s age, we replayed 2 minutes of electroencephalography (EEG) of 141 patients (19–88 years, ASA I–IV) undergoing general anesthesia maintained with desflurane, sevoflurane, or propofol to the SEDLine monitor. We extracted the PSI as well as the spectral edge frequency (SEF) and performed a linear regression analysis. For evaluation of the time delay, we replayed 5 minutes of EEG of stable episodes of adequate anesthesia (PSI between 25 and 50) or light sedation/wake (PSI >70) in different orders to the SEDLine to simulate sudden changes between the states. Time delays were defined as the required time span of the monitor to reach the stable target index.
PSI and SEF increased significantly with the patient’s age. These findings did not depend on the administered anesthetic. The evaluation of the correlation between SEF and PSI showed a strong correlation with Spearman’s correlation coefficient of ρ = 0.86 (0.82; 0.89). The time delays depended on the type of transition. We found a median time delay of 54 (Min: 46; Max: 61) seconds for the important transition between adequate anesthesia and awake and 55 (Min: 50; Max: 67) seconds in the other direction.
With our analyses, we show that the indices presented on the SEDLine display, the PSI and the SEF, increase with age for patients under general anesthesia. Additionally, a delay of the PSI to react to sudden neurophysiologic changes due to dose of the maintenance anesthetic is of a time course that is clinically significant. These factors should be considered when navigating anesthesia relying on only the proprietary index for the SEDLine monitor.