We aimed to determine the preventive and therapeutic efficacy of modified manual chest compression (MMCC), a novel noninvasive and device-independent method, in reducing oxygen desaturation events in patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy under deep sedation.
A total of 584 outpatients who underwent deep sedation during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were enrolled. In the preventive cohort, 440 patients were randomized to the MMCC group (patients received MMCC when their eyelash reflex disappeared, M1 group) or control group (C1 group). In the therapeutic cohort, 144 patients with oxygen desaturation of a Spo2 < 95% were randomized to MMCC group (patients who subsequently received MMCC, M2 group) or the conventional treatment group (C2 group). The primary outcomes were the incidence of desaturation episodes with an Spo2 < 95% for the preventive cohort and the time spent below 95% Spo2 for the therapeutic cohort. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of gastroscopy withdrawal and diaphragmatic pause.
In the preventive cohort, MMCC reduced the incidence of desaturation episodes <95% (14.4% vs 26.1%; RR, 0.549; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37–0.815; P = .002), gastroscopy withdrawal (0% vs 2.29%; P = .008), and diaphragmatic pause at 30 seconds after propofol injection (74.5% vs 88.1%; RR, 0.846; 95% CI, 0.772–0.928; P < .001). In the therapeutic cohort, patients who received MMCC had a significantly shorter time spent below 95% Spo2 (40 [20–69] seconds vs 91 [33–152] seconds, median difference [95% CI], −39 [−57 to −16] seconds, P < .001), a lower incidence of gastroscopy withdrawal (0% vs 10.4%, P = .018), and more enhanced diaphragmatic movement at 30 seconds after Spo2 <95% (1.11 [0.93–1.4] cm vs 1.03 [0.7–1.24] cm; median difference [95% confidence interval], 0.16 [0.02–0.32] cm; P = .015).
MMCC may exert preventive and therapeutic effects against oxygen desaturation events during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.