The transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 3 (TRPV3) channel is activated by innocuous temperature and several chemical stimuli. It is proposed to be involved in pathological pain development and is therefore considered a potential target for treating pain. Local anesthetics have been used for patients with both acute and chronic pain. Although blockage of the voltage-gated sodium channel is the primary mechanism by which local anesthetics exert their effects, they cannot be explained by this mechanism alone, especially in pathologic states such as chronic pain. Indeed, the effects of local anesthetics on multiple targets involved in the pain pathway have been reported. It has also been suggested that modulating the function of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels (eg, TRPV1 and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 [TRPA1]) is one of the mechanisms of action of local anesthetics. However, the effects of local anesthetics on TRPV3 have not been reported.
We expressed TRPV3 in Xenopus oocytes and investigated the effects of local anesthetics on 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2APB)–induced currents using 2-electrode voltage-clamp techniques.
Clinically used local anesthetics inhibited the 2APB-activated currents from the TRPV3 channel in a concentration-dependent manner at pharmacologically relevant concentrations with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 2.5 (lidocaine), 1.4 (mepivacaine), 0.28 (ropivacaine), and 0.17 (bupivacaine) mmol/L, respectively. Conversely, these local anesthetics also directly induced currents at higher concentrations, although these currents were quite small compared to the 2APB-induced currents. We found that the inhibition of TRPV3 by lidocaine is noncompetitive and independent of intracellular signaling cascades. 2APB-induced TRPV3 currents were reduced by extracellular N-(2,6-dimethylphenylcarbamoylmethyl) triethylammonium bromide (QX-314) but not by intracellular QX-314 nor benzocaine. Moreover, lidocaine showed a use-dependent block in TRPV3 inhibition. Finally, QX-314 appeared to slightly permeate the activated TRPV3 channel pore based on examination of oocytes coexpressing TRPV3 and a sodium channel. These results suggest that local anesthetics could inhibit TRPV3 channel function by extracellular interactions of their charged forms with the channel pore.
Local anesthetics inhibited TRPV3 2APB-induced currents at pharmacologically relevant concentrations when TRPV3 was expressed in Xenopus oocytes. These effects seem to occur via an extracellular interaction between the charged form of the anesthetic with the TRPV3 channel pore. These results help to elucidate the mechanisms of action of local anesthetics.