Sepsis remains the leading cause of mortality in critically ill patients, and mortality is increased when acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guideline recommends the implementation of supportive measures in patients at high risk for AKI. However, it remains unclear to what extent these nephroprotective measures are implemented in daily clinical practice in critically ill patients, especially those with high-risk exposures such as sepsis.
We analyzed the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care IV (MIMIC-IV) database to identify septic patients with and without AKI. The primary outcome of interest was the adherence to the KDIGO bundle consisting of avoidance of nephrotoxic agents, implementation of a functional hemodynamic monitoring, optimization of perfusion pressure and volume status, close monitoring of renal function, avoidance of hyperglycemia, and avoidance of radiocontrast agents. Secondary outcomes included the development of AKI, progression of AKI, the use of renal replacement therapy (RRT), mortality, and a composite end point consisting of progression of AKI and mortality within 7 days.
Our analysis included 34,679 patients with sepsis with 1.6% receiving the complete bundle (10% received 5, 42.3% 4, 35.4% 3, and 9.8% 2 bundle components). In 56.4%, nephrotoxic agents were avoided, and hemodynamic optimization was reached in 86.5%. Secondary end points were improved in patients with bundle adherence. Avoidance of nephrotoxic drugs and optimization of hemodynamics were significantly associated with lower rates of AKI and improved patient outcomes, including 30-day mortality.
Implementation of the KDIGO bundle is poor in patients with sepsis but may be associated with improved outcomes.