Measuring fluid status during intraoperative hemorrhage is challenging, but detection and quantification of fluid overload is far more difficult. Using a porcine model of hemorrhage and over-resuscitation, it is hypothesized that centrally obtained hemodynamic parameters will predict volume status more accurately than peripherally obtained vital signs.

Eight anesthetized female pigs were hemorrhaged at 30 ml/min to a blood loss of 400 ml. After each 100 ml of hemorrhage, vital signs (heart rate, systolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, pulse pressure variation) and centrally obtained hemodynamic parameters (mean pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, central venous pressure, cardiac output) were obtained. Blood volume was restored, and the pigs were over-resuscitated with 2,500 ml of crystalloid, collecting parameters after each 500-ml bolus. Hemorrhage and resuscitation phases were analyzed separately to determine differences among parameters over the range of volume. Conformity of parameters during hemorrhage or over-resuscitation was assessed.


During the course of hemorrhage, changes from baseline euvolemia were observed in vital signs (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial pressure) after 100 ml of blood loss. Central hemodynamic parameters (mean pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure) were changed after 200 ml of blood loss, and central venous pressure after 300 ml of blood loss. During the course of resuscitative volume overload, changes were observed from baseline euvolemia in mean pulmonary artery pressure and central venous pressure after 500-ml resuscitation, in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure after 1,000-ml resuscitation, and cardiac output after 2,500-ml resuscitation. In contrast to hemorrhage, vital sign parameters did not change during over-resuscitation. The strongest linear correlation was observed with pulmonary capillary wedge pressure in both hemorrhage (r2 = 0.99) and volume overload (r2 = 0.98).


Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure is the most accurate parameter to track both hemorrhage and over-resuscitation, demonstrating the unmet clinical need for a less invasive pulmonary capillary wedge pressure equivalent.

Editor’s Perspective
What We Already Know about This Topic
  • When implementing a goal-directed fluid therapy protocol, it is currently unknown what peripherally assessed signs (heart rate, blood pressure, pulse pressure, pulse pressure variation) and centrally measured (pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, central venous pressure, cardiac output) hemodynamic parameters best reflect volume status during hemorrhage and resuscitation
What This Article Tells Us That Is New
  • In anesthetized pigs who underwent incremental hemorrhage, resuscitation and over-resuscitation with crystalloid, blood pressure, mean pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and central venous pressure decreased with hemorrhage, but only central hemodynamic parameters increased with resuscitation and over-resuscitation
  • Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure had the closest correlation with the volume of crystalloid resuscitation administered