Acute kidney injury is a common complication after cardiac surgery, with a high impact on morbidity and mortality. Vascular adhesion protein-1 is involved in inflammation, which, in turn, is part of the development of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery.
In this ancillary study to the RENal effects of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning in cardiac surgery trial, we investigated whether vascular adhesion protein-1 might be associated with the development of acute kidney injury in high-risk patients after cardiac surgery. In total, 114 patients were included in this data set. Acute kidney injury was defined by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria serum creatinine and/or urine output. Vascular adhesion protein-1 concentrations were measured at baseline (before surgery), 4 hours, and 12 hours after cardiopulmonary bypass.
Vascular adhesion protein-1 levels at 12 hours were significantly higher in patients with acute kidney injury (no acute kidney injury, 271 ng/mL [Q1, Q3, 179, 364 ng/mL] versus acute kidney injury, 384 ng/mL [Q1, Q3, 311, 478 ng/mL]; P < .001). Moreover, patients developing acute kidney injury had higher differences in vascular adhesion protein-1 levels between 12 hours and baseline (P < .001) and between 12 and 4 hours (P < .001) after cardiopulmonary bypass. At a cut point difference value of 99 ng/mL (95% CI, 63–133) between 12 hours and baseline, patients with differences >99 ng/mL showed a higher occurrence rate of acute kidney injury (acute kidney injury, 78.6% versus no acute kidney injury, 31.5%; P < .001). Receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses demonstrated best performance for vascular adhesion protein-1 levels at 12 hours for acute kidney injury within 72 hours after surgery, especially in the subgroup of patients with chronic kidney disease (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, 0.78; P < .001).
Vascular adhesion protein-1 is elevated in patients developing acute kidney injury assuming that vascular adhesion protein-1 plays a crucial role in the development of acute kidney injury in high-risk patients after cardiac surgery.