Methods PubMed and EMBASE were searched from inception to 18 February 2019. Cohort studies exploring longitudinal associations of sleep with cognitive decline or dementia were included. The multivariable-adjusted effect estimates were pooled by random-effects models, with credibility assessment. The robust error meta-regression model was used to conduct the dose–response meta-analysis for sleep duration.
Results 11 155 reports were searched and 51 eligible cohorts with 15 sleep problems were included for our meta-analyses. Ten types of sleep conditions or parameters, including six (insomnia, fragmentation, daytime dysfunction, prolonged latency, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and excessive time in bed) with moderate-to-high levels of evidence, were linked to higher risk of all-cause cognitive disorders. Furthermore, a U-shaped relationship was revealed for the associations with sleep duration.
Conclusions Sleep management might serve as a promising target for dementia prevention.
This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial.