In patients presenting for pyloromyotomy, most practitioners prioritize rapid securement of the airway due to concern for aspiration. However, there is a lack of consensus and limited evidence on the choice between rapid sequence induction (RSI) and modified RSI (mRSI).
The medical records of all patients presenting for pyloromyotomy from May 2012 to December 2018 were reviewed. The risk of hypoxemia (peripheral oxygen saturation [Spo2], <90%) during induction was compared between RSI and mRSI cohorts for all patients identified as well as in the neonate subgroup by univariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis. Complications (aspiration, intensive care unit admission, bradycardia, postoperative stridor, and hypotension) and initial intubation success for both cohorts were also compared.
A total of 296 patients were identified: 181 in the RSI and 115 in the mRSI cohorts. RSI was associated with significantly higher rates of hypoxemia than mRSI (RSI, 30% [23%–37%]; mRSI, 17% [10%–24%]; P = .016). In multivariable logistic regression analysis of all patients, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of hypoxemia for RSI versus mRSI was 2.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5–5.3; P = .003) and the OR of hypoxemia for multiple versus a single intubation attempt was 11.4 (95% CI, 5.8–22.5; P < .001). In multivariable logistic regression analysis of neonatal subgroup, the OR of hypoxemia for RSI versus mRSI was 6.5 (95% CI, 2.0–22.2; P < .001) and the OR of hypoxemia for multiple intubation versus single intubation attempts was 18.1 (95% CI, 4.7–40; P < .001). There were no induction-related complications in either the RSI and mRSI cohorts, and the initial intubation success rate was identical for both cohorts (78%).
In infants presenting for pyloromyotomy, anesthetic induction with mRSI compared with RSI was associated with significantly less hypoxemia without an observed increase in aspiration events. In addition, the need for multiple intubation attempts was a strong predictor of hypoxemia. The increased risk of hypoxemia associated with RSI and multiple intubation attempts was even more pronounced in neonatal patients.