Brain monitors tracking quantitative brain activities from electroencephalogram (EEG) to predict hypnotic levels have been proposed as a labor-saving alternative to behavioral assessments. Expensive clinical trials are required to validate any newly developed processed EEG monitor for every drug and combinations of drugs due to drug-specific EEG patterns. There is a need for an alternative, efficient, and economical method.
Using deep learning algorithms, we developed a novel data-repurposing framework to predict hypnotic levels from sleep brain rhythms. We used an online large sleep data set (5723 clinical EEGs) for training the deep learning algorithm and a clinical trial hypnotic data set (30 EEGs) for testing during dexmedetomidine infusion. Model performance was evaluated using accuracy and the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC).
The deep learning model (a combination of a convolutional neural network and long short-term memory units) trained on sleep EEG predicted deep hypnotic level with an accuracy (95% confidence interval [CI]) = 81 (79.2–88.3)%, AUC (95% CI) = 0.89 (0.82–0.94) using dexmedetomidine as a prototype drug. We also demonstrate that EEG patterns during dexmedetomidine-induced deep hypnotic level are homologous to nonrapid eye movement stage 3 EEG sleep.
We propose a novel method to develop hypnotic level monitors using large sleep EEG data, deep learning, and a data-repurposing approach, and for optimizing such a system for monitoring any given individual. We provide a novel data-repurposing framework to predict hypnosis levels using sleep EEG, eliminating the need for new clinical trials to develop hypnosis level monitors.