Hip fracture is a serious event in the older population and is associated with morbidity, mortality, and disability among those who survive. Emerging evidence suggests that frailty is pertinent to the clinical outcomes of older patients with hip fracture.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study on older patients (aged ≥65 years) who underwent orthopedic repair with hip fracture under spinal or general anesthesia between June 1, 2019 and May 31, 2020. Demographic, surgical, and anesthetic features; chart-derived frailty index (CFI); occurrence of complications; and length of stay were retrospectively collected by reviewing patients’ anesthesia records and medical charts. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to their CFI: high CFI group (CFI, 3–5) and low CFI group (CFI, 0–2). The CFI was calculated as the addition of the patient’s conditions, including age >70 years, preoperative body mass index <18.5 kg/m2, hematocrit <35%, albumin <34 g/L, and serum creatinine >176.8 mol/L (2.0 mg/dL). The EuroQol 5-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) was obtained through telephone interviews 12 months after surgery to assess mortality and long-term quality of life.
During the study period, 381 patients met the inclusion criteria. Patients in the high CFI group had an increased incidence of delirium by 13.80% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.31–21.29) (17 [16.6%] vs 8 [2.8%]; P < .001) compared to patients in the low CFI group. More patients in the high CFI group had pneumonia with an increased incidence of 17.71% (95% CI, 7.08–23.34) (40 [39.2%] vs 60 [21.5%]; P < .001) than patients in the low CFI group. Postoperative hospital stay was significantly longer in the high CFI group (8 [6–12] vs 7 [5–10] days; P = .0222) than in the low CFI group. More patients died in the high CFI group 1 year after surgery with an increased mortality of 19.33% (95% CI, 9.47–29.18) (26.4% [23/87] vs 7.1% [16/225]; P < .001) than patients in the low CFI group. A total of 64 patients in the high CFI group and 209 patients in the low CFI group completed the EQ-5D survey 1 year after surgery. The EQ-5D score in the high CFI group was significantly lower than that in the low CFI group (0.63 ± 0.22 vs 0.72 ± 0.22; P = .002).
Frailty status is associated with adverse postoperative outcomes, mortality, and low quality of life 12 months after hip fracture surgery in older patients.